Meeting the needs of all people within the limits of the planet

Doughnut Economics

Oxford economist Kate Raworth has pioneered this, illustrating it with the model of ‘The Doughnut’:

  • The inner ring is the social foundation, the minimum that everyone requires e.g. access to food, water, housing, healthcare, education, equality, justice, and a peaceful society 
  • The outer ring is the ecological limits of the planet, which when breached result in climate change, biodiversity loss and pollution in its multiple forms


The Doughnut’s Seven Ways of Planning Change help to reconstruct our growth-based economy into one which is redistributive and circular, balancing priorities between the social and ecological. 

Communities all around the world are applying Doughnut Economics to their towns and cities, for example Leeds, Cambridge, Melbourne, Amsterdam, and various places in Brazil. The DEAL forum offers a comprehensive framework for implementation of these local projects. 

We have set up a group to use this framework to apply the Doughnut Economics concept and way of working to Norwich and surrounding areas. Our city already has a wealth of initiatives working for both social and environmental wellbeing. Examples include the Norwich Climate Commission, Sustainable Food Norwich, Norwich for Warm Homes, Climate Museum UK, as well as Norwich Eco Hub. We want to draw attention to all these initiatives, support their development and impact, foster information-sharing and encourage novel approaches.